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Waec Syllabus for Mathematics for 2020/2021 examination. This Syllabus act as a guide to help those preparing to write Mathematics in Waec to read and understand topics that may be asked in the exam. To be able to pass Mathematics in Waec very well, one must study the syllabus and the past questions. Below is the syllabus, so take your time to read about it.

Contents

## WAEC MATHEMATICS GENERAL GUIDE

For all papers which involve mathematical calculations, mathematical and statistical tables published for WAEC should be used in the examination room. However, the use of a non-programmable, silent and cordless calculator is allowed.

The calculator must not have a paper printout. Where the degree of accuracy is not specified in a question the degree of accuracy expected will be that obtainable from the WAEC mathematical tables.

Trigonometrical tables
in the pamphlet have different columns for decimal fractions of a degree, not for minutes and seconds.

No mathematical tables other than the above may be used in the examination. It is strongly recommended that schools/candidates obtain copies of these tables for use throughout the course.

Candidates should bring rulers, protractors, pair of compasses and set squares for all papers.
They will not be allowed to borrow such instruments and any other materials from other candidates in the examination hall. It should be noted that some questions may prohibit the use of tables and /or calculators. The use of slide rules is not allowed.

Graph paper ruled in 2 mm squares, will be provided for any paper in which it is required.

UNITS
Candidates should be familiar with the following units and their symbols.
Length
10000 millimetres (mm) = 100 centimetres (cm) = 1 metre (m)
1000 metres = 1 kilometre (km)
Area
10,000 square metres (m2) = 1 hectare (ha)
Cubic Capacity
1000 cubic centimetres (cm3) = 1 litre (1)
Mass
1000 milligrammes (mg) = 1 gramme (g)
1000 grammes (g) = 1 kilogramme (kg)

WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION
MATHEMATICS (CORE)/GENERAL MATHEMATICS

324

CURRENCIES

The Gambia – 100 bututs (b) = 1 dalasi (D)
Ghana – 100 pesewas (p) = 1 Ghana cedi GH(¢)
Liberia – 100 cents (c) = 1 dollar (\$)
*Nigeria – 100 kobo (k) = 1 naira (N)
*Sierra Leone – 100 cents (c) = 1 leone (Le)
U. K. – 100 pence (p) = 1 pound (£)
U.S.A. – 100 cents (c) = 1 dollar (\$)

French speaking territories : 100 centimes (c) = 1 franc (fr)
Any other units used will be defined.
*General Mathematics/Mathematics (Core).

## AIMS OF THE WAEC MATHEMATICS SYLLABUS

The syllabus is not intended to be used as a teaching syllabus. Teachers are advised to use
their own National teaching syllabuses. The aims of the syllabus are to test:

(i) computational skills;
(ii) the understanding of mathematical concepts and their applications to everyday living;
(iii) the ability to translate problems into mathematical language and solve them with
related mathematical knowledge;
(iv) the ability to be accurate to a degree relevant to the problems at hand;
(v) precise, logical and abstract thinking.

## WAEC EXAMINATION FORMAT

There will be two papers both of which must be taken.

PAPER 1 – 11/2 hours
PAPER 2 – 21/2 hours

## WASSCE GENERAL MATHEMATICS/MATHEMATICS (CORE) SYLLABUS

TOPICS CONTENTS NOTES
A. NUMBER AND NUMERATION

(a) Number Bases

(i) Binary numbers

**(ii) Modular arithmetic

Conversions from base 2 to base 10 and
vice versa. Basic operations excluding
division. Awareness of other number
bases is desirable.

Relate to market days, the clock etc.
Truth sets (solution sets) for various open
sentences, e.g. 3 x 2 = a(mod) 4, 8 + y =
4 (mod) 9.

(b) Fractions, decimals and approximations

(i) Basic operations on
fractions and decimals.

(ii) Approximations and
significant figures

Approximations should be realistic e.g. a
road is not measured correct to the
nearest cm. Include error.

(c) Indices

(i) Laws of indices.

(ii) Numbers in standard
form.

Include simple examples of negative and
fractions indices.

e.g. 375.3 = 3.753 x 102
0.0035 = 3.5 x 10-3
Use of tables of squares,
square roots and reciprocals.

(d) Logarithms

(i) Relationship between
indices and
logarithms e.g.

y = 10k → K = log10 y

(ii) Basic rules of logarithms i.e.
log10 (pq) = log10P + log10q

log10 (p/q) = log10 P – log10q

log10Pn = nlog10P

(iii) Use of tables of logarithms,
Base 10 logarithm and
Antilogarithm tables.

Calculations involving
multiplication, division,
powers and square roots.

(e) Sequence

(i) Patterns of sequences.
Determine any term of a
given sequence.

*(ii) Arithmetic Progression (A.P)
Geometric Progression (G.P).

The notation Un = the nth term of
a sequence may be used.

Simple cases only, including word
problems. Excluding sum Sn.

(f) Sets

(i) Idea of sets, universal set,
finite and infinite sets, subsets,
empty sets and disjoint sets;
idea of and notation for union,
intersection and complement of
sets.

(ii) Solution of practical problems
involving classification, using
Venn diagrams.

Notations: ℰ,, , , , , P1
(the complement of P).
* Include commutative,
associative and distributive
properties.

The use of Venn diagrams
restricted to at most 3 sets.

**(g) Logical reasoning Simple statements. True and false
statements. The negation of
statements.

Implication, equivalence and valid
arguments.

Use of symbols: ~, , , .

Use of Venn diagrams preferable.

## WEST AFRICAN SENIOR SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION MATHEMATICS (CORE)/GENERAL MATHEMATICS

327

TOPICS CONTENTS NOTES
(h) Positive and Negative
integers. Rational numbers

The four basic operations on
rational numbers

Match rational numbers with
points on the number line.

Notation: Natural numbers (N),
Integers (Z), Rational numbers
(Q)

(i) Surds

Simplification and
Rationalisation of simple surds.

Surds of the form a and a b
 b
where a is a rational and b is a
positive integer.

(j) Ratio, Proportion
and Rates

Financial partnerships; rates of
work, costs, taxes, foreign
exchange, density (e.g. for
population) mass, distance,
time and speed.

Include average rates.

(k) Variation

Direct, inverse and partial
variations.
*Joint variations.

Application to simple practical
problems.

(l) Percentages

Simple interest, commission,
discount, depreciation, profit
and loss, compound interest
and hire purchase.

Exclude the use of compound
interest formula.

## WAEC SYLLABUS FOR MATHEMATICS 2020

B. ALGEBRAIC
PROCESSES

(a) Algebraic
Expressions

(i) Expression of
statements in symbols.

(ii) Formulating algebraic
expressions from given
situations.

(iii) Evaluation of algebraic
expressions.

eg. Find an expression for the
cost C cedis of 4 pears at x cedis
each and 3 oranges at y cedis each
C = 4x + 3y

If x = 60 and y = 20.
Find C.

(b) Simple operations on
algebraic xpressions.

(i) Expansion

(ii) Factorisation

e.g. (a+b) (c+d). (a+3) (c+4)

Expressions of the form

(i) ax + ay
(ii) a (b+c) +d (b+c)
(iii) ax2 + bx +c
where a,b,c are integers

(iv) a2 – b2

Application of difference of two
squares e.g.

492 – 472 = (49 + 47) (49 – 47)

= 96 x 2 = 192

(c) Solution of linear
equations

(i) Linear equations in one variable

(ii) Simultaneous linear equations
in two variables.

(d) Change of subject of
a formula/relation

(i) Change of subject of a
formula/relation

(ii) Substitution

e.g. find v in terms of f and u
given that

1 1 1
— = — + —
ƒ u v

equations

equations with given roots.

(iii) Application of solution of
problems.

Using ab = 0  either a = 0 or b
= 0
* By completing the square and
use of formula.
Simple rational roots only.
equation.

Whose roots are –3 and 5/2

=> (x = 3) (x – 5/2) = 0.

(f) Graphs of Linear
functions.

(i) Interpretation of graphs,
coordinates of points, table
of values. Drawing
obtaining roots from graphs.

(ii) Graphical solution of a
pair of equations of the
form

y = ax2 + bx + c and
y = mx + k

(iii) Drawing of a tangent to
curves to determine

(iv) The gradient of a line

** (v) Equation of a Line

Finding:
(i) the coordinates of the
maximum and minimum
points on the graph;

(ii) intercepts on the axes.
Identifying axis of
Symmetry. Recognising
sketched graphs.

solve a related equation

e.g. graph of y = x2 + 5x + 6
to solve x2 + 5x + 4 = 0

(i) By drawing relevant
triangle to determine the

(ii) The gradient, m, of the line
joining the points

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is

y2 – y1
m =
x2 – x1

Equation in the form
y = mx + c or y – y1 = m(x-x1)

(g) Linear inequalities

(i) Solution of linear
inequalities in one variable
and representation on the
number line.

(ii) Graphical solution of linear
inequalities in two variables

Simple practical problems

## WAEC SYLLABUS FOR MATHEMATICS 2020

** (h) Relations and functions

Recommended Waec syllabus for physics

(i) Relations

(ii) Functions

Various types of relations
One – to – one,
many – to – one,
one – to – many,
many – to – many

The idea of a function.
Types of functions.
One – to – one,
many – to – one.

(i) Algebraic fractions

Operations on algebraic
fractions

(i) with monomial
denominators.

(ii) with binomial
denominators.

Simple cases only e.g.
1 1 x + y
— + — = —- (x  0, and y0)
x y xy

Simple cases only e.g.

1 + 1 = 2x – a – b
x –b x – a (x-a) (x – b)
where a and b are constants and
xa or b.

Values for which a fraction is
not defined e.g.
1
x + 3 is not defined for x = -3.

C. MENSURATION

(a) Lengths and Perimeters

(i) Use of Pythagoras
theorem, sine and cosine
rules to determine
lengths and distances.

(ii) Lengths of arcs of
circles. Perimeters of
sectors and Segments.

*(iii) Latitudes and Longitudes.

No formal proofs of the theorem
and rules are required.

Distances along latitudes and
longitudes and their
corresponding angles.

(b) Areas
(i) Triangles and special
parallelograms and trapezia.

(ii) Circles, sectors and
segments of circles.

(iii) Surface areas of cube, cuboid,
cylinder, right triangular prisms
and cones. *Spheres.

Areas of similar figures.
Include area of triangles is
½ base x height and *1/2 abSin C.

Areas of compound shapes.
The relation between the sector of a
circle and the surface area of a
cone.

(c) Volumes

(i) Volumes of cubes, cuboid,
cylinders, cones and right
pyramids. * Spheres.

(ii) Volumes of similar solids

Volumes of compound shapes.

D. PLANE GEOMETRY

(a) Angles at a point

(i) Angles at a point add up to
360.

straight line are supplementary.

(iii) Vertically opposite angles are
equal.

The results of these standard
theorems stated under contents
must be known but their formal
proofs are not required.
However, proofs based on the
knowledge of these theorems
may be tested.

The degree as a unit of measure.

Acute, obtuse, reflex angles.

(b) Angles and intercepts on parallel lines

(i) Alternate angles are equal.

(ii) Corresponding angles are equal.

(iii) Interior opposite angles are
supplementary.

*(iv) Intercept theorem

Application to proportional
division of a line segment.

(c) Triangles and other
polygons

(i) The sum of the angles of a
triangle is 2 right angles.

(ii) The exterior angle of a
triangle equals the sum of
the two interior opposite
angles.

(iii) Congruent triangles.

(iv) Properties of special
triangles – isosceles,
equilateral, right-angled.

(v) Properties of special
parallelogram, rhombus,
rectangle, square,
trapezium.

(vi) Properties of similar
triangles.

(vii) The sum of the angles of a
polygon.

(viii) Property of exterior angles
of a polygon.

(ix) Parallelograms on the same
base and between the same
parallels are equal in area.

Conditions to be known but
proofs not required. Rotation,
translation, reflection and lines
of symmetry to be used.

Use symmetry where applicable.

Equiangular properties and ratio
of sides and areas.

(d) Circles

(i) Chords

(ii) The angle which an arc of a
circle subtends at the centre
is twice that which it
subtends at any point on the
remaining part of the
circumference.

(iii) Any angle subtended at the
circumference by a diameter
is a right angle.

Angles subtended by chords in a
circle, at the centre of a circle.
Perpendicular bisectors of
chords.

(iv) Angles in the same segment
are equal

(v) Angles in opposite
segments are supplementary.

(vi) Perpendicularity of tangent and

(vii) If a straight line touches a circle
at only one point and from the
point of contact a chord is drawn,
each angle which this chord
makes with the tangent is equal
to the angle in the alternative
segment.

(e) Construction

(i) Bisectors of angles and line
segments.

(ii) Line parallel or perpendicular
to a given line.

(iii) An angle of 90º, 60º, 45º, 30º
and an angle equal to a given
angle.

from sufficient data.

Include a combination of these
angles e.g. 75º, 105º, 135º,
etc.

(f) Loci

Knowledge of the loci listed below and
their intersections in 2 dimensions.

(i) Points at a given distance from a
given point.

(ii) Points equidistant from two
given points.

(iii) Points equidistant from two
given straight lines.

(iv) Points at a given distance from
a given straight line.

Consider parallel and
intersecting lines.

E. TRIGONOMETRY

(a) Sine, cosine and
tangent of an angle.

(b) Angles of elevation
and depression.

(c) Bearings

(i) Sine, cosine and tangent
of an acute angle.

(ii) Use of tables.

(iii) Trigonometric ratios of
30º, 45º and 60º.

*(iv) Sine, cosine and
tangent of angles
from 0º to 360º.

*(v) Graphs of sine and
cosine.

Calculating angles of elevation and
depression. Application to heights
and distances.

(i) Bearing of one point from
another.

(ii) Calculation of distances
and angles.

Without use of tables.

Related to the unit circle.

0º ≤ x ≥ 360º

Easy problems only

Easy problems only

Sine and cosine rules may be
used.

E. STATISTICS AND
PROBABILITY

(a) Statistics

(i) Frequency distribution.

(ii) Pie charts, bar charts,
histograms and frequency
polygons.

(iii) Mean, median and mode
for both discrete and
grouped data.

(iv) Cumulative frequency
curve, median; quartiles
and percentiles.

(v) Measures of dispersion:
range, interquartile range,
mean deviation and
standard deviation from the
mean.

inferences from graphs and
interpretations of data in
histograms.

Exclude unequal class interval.
Use of an assumed mean is
acceptable but nor required. For
grouped data, the mode should
be estimated from the histogram
and the median from the
cumulative frequency curve.

Simple examples only. Note
that mean deviation is the mean
of the absolute deviations.

(b) Probability

(i) Experimental and
theoretical probability.

for mutually exclusive and
independent events.

(iii) Multiplication of
probabilities for
independent events.

Include equally likely events e.g.
probability of throwing a six
with fair die, or a head when
tossing a fair coin.

Simple practical problems only.
Interpretation of ‘and’ and ‘or’
in probability.

**(G) VECTORS AND TRANSFORMATIONS IN A PLANE

(a) Vectors in a Plane.

(i) A vector as a directed line
segment, magnitude,
equal vectors, sums and
differences of vectors.

(ii) Parallel and equal
vectors.

(iii) Multiplication of a
vector by a scalar.

(iv) Cartesian components of
a vector.

Column notation. Emphasis on
graphical representation.

Notation

0 for the zero

vector.

(b) Transformation in the
Cartesian Coordinate
plane.

(i) Reflection

(ii) Rotation

(iii) Translation

The reflection of points and
shapes in the x and y axes and in
the lines x = k and y = k, where
k is a rational number.
Determination of the mirror
lines of points/shapes and their
images.

Use of the translation vector.

1 Comment

#### 1 Comment

1. Toyib Abdulwarith

February 28, 2019 at 7:07 pm

dix app is very important and useful

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